The research office at GCBS is the research, consulting, training, and entrepreneurship development arm of the college. The college recognizes the importance of research as a key component of its mission. The office drives policy-relevant business research, provides GNH value-based training in the field of business and management, engages in consulting projects, and facilitates the creation of an enabling environment for student entrepreneurship. The Royal University of Bhutan has granted endorsement for the college to establish the research centre named ‘Centre for Business Research and Entrepreneurship Development (CBRED)’.

Research Policies

  1. RUB Research Policies

    ‘Zhib Tshol’ RUB Research Policies is the primary reference regarding research for members of the university and anyone involved in research with the university. The policies define the official policies, procedures, and structure of the university governing all aspects of research. It also aims to inform and educate readers about the process and conduct of research, and is meant to be a useful tool that supports researchers in the university. It further seeks to encourage and enable collaboration amongst university member colleges with the wider research and academic world.

  2. GCBS Research and Consultancy Policy:

    In order to create uniformity and transparency in the planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation, as well as research output dissemination process, the college has developed a policy document ‘GCBS Research and Consultancy Policy 2018’. The policy was developed in line with the Royal University of Bhutan Research Policies ‘Zhib Tshol’. The policy defines the procedures and structure of the college governing all aspects of research-related activities. The policy seeks to encourage and enable sharing of information through engagement in research, consultancy, research events, and other modes of international exposure. The policy also contains research/consultancy support services and guidelines for the students. 

  3. Centre for Business Research and Entrepreneurship Development (CB-RED)
    The Centre for Business Research and Entrepreneurship Development [CBRED] was established in spring 2016 with a vision to be the centre for excellence in business research and in entrepreneurship development. Specific mandates of the centre include creating a vibrant research culture, driving policy-relevant research, publications, linkages, and promoting entrepreneurship. The centre is envisioned to become the research, training, consulting, and entrepreneurship arm of the college.
    • Entrepreneurship Development Cell
      Entrepreneurship is one of the strategic thrust areas for the Royal Government of Bhutan. In line with the government’s plan, the Royal University of Bhutan’s Strategic Plan (2018 – 2030) focuses on entrepreneurship development5. The University aspires to create a culture of entrepreneurship in the colleges through education, skills development, and entrepreneurial practices. In this line, the college established Entrepreneurship Development Cell for promoting entrepreneurship culture and practice. The Cell facilitates to build entrepreneurial skills such as support to incubate business ideas through the College incubation centre and invite practicing entrepreneurs to share their success and failure stories.
    • Training and Consulting Services
      The college also provides professional services in the various fields for the individual/organisation clients out the college. The professional service in the form of research/problem-based consultancy and also the training is facilitated by the CBRED. Any staff engaged in providing professional services is guided by the standing college research and consulting policy and guidelines. The training programmes are developed and delivered by the college faculty members based on the needs of the organisation or in the market. The Centre provides tailored-made programmes to both pre-service and in-service participants. For enquiry related to training and consultancy, please write to us at
  4. Research Events
    The College conducts research events like symposiums, seminars, workshops, and conferences at regular intervals to provide flexible and versatile platforms for sharing knowledge, ideas, and experiences. The events that facilitate a common platform for academic scholars, researchers, corporate leaders, government officials, industry experts, and people from varied backgrounds to discuss the roles of business in creating a sustainable world shall be prioritized. The research events are carried out at different levels such as international, national, or college depending on the nature of the events. We also collaborate with other industries or educational institutions for conducting joint international conferences.
  5. Publications
    In order to disseminate the new information timely to the community, the college strives for a variety of publications such as research journals, newsletters, annual reports, and other project reports/policy briefs.

              5.1 Bhutan Journal of Business and Management
     The Center for Business Research and Entrepreneurship Development [CBRED] publishes Bhutan Journal of Business and Management (BJBM). BJBM is a double-blind peer-reviewed journal published annually having secured professional ISSN-L 2079-7680 (PRINT) in 2010 and ISSN 2663-1784 (ONLINE) in 2019. The journal primarily encourages empirical and conceptual research articles, case studies, and research notes from diverse fields. It provides a platform for keen researchers, practitioners, professionals, and academicians who are involved in the field of business and management in particular and in other areas in general. The inferences drawn from the various studies of this journal are expected to benefit various stakeholders that include students, researchers, academicians, and policymakers both at national and the international levels. The scope of publication encompasses all areas of business and management such as accounting, finance, human resource management, marketing, economics, organizational behaviour, logistic management strategies, technological management, entrepreneurship, business communication, and other general management.

    For enquiry or interested to submit manuscripts for publication in the BJBM, kindly write to the journal editor at

Bhutan Journal of Business and Management (BJBM) Referencing

APA Referencing Format (6th ed.) 

  1. Books

Book with a single author

Cottrell, S. (2013). The study skills handbook (5th ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Book with two authors

McQueen, R. A., & Knussen, C. (2006). An introduction to research methods and statistics in psychology. Harlow: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Book with three to five authors

Greig, A., Taylor, J., & MacKay, T. (2013). Doing research with children: A practical guide. London: Sage. 

Book with six or seven authors

Bexby, C., Nigel, E., Smith, K., Rodgers, G. A., Williams, H., & Robinson, J. (2005). Referencing and plagiarism: A complete guide. London: Sage.

Book with eight or more authors

Berman, A., Snyder, S. J., Levett-Jones, T., Dwyer, T., Hales, M., Harvey, N. … Stanley, D. (2012). Kozier and Erb’s fundamentals of nursing (2nd Aust. ed.). Frenchs Forest, Australia: Pearson Australia.

Edited book

Smith, J. A. (Ed.). (2008). Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods. London: Sage.

Chapter in an edited book

Van de Vijver, F., & Leung, K. (2011). Equivalence and bias: A review of concepts, models, and data analytic procedures.  In D. Matsumoto & F. Van de Vijver (Eds.), Cross-cultural research methods in psychology (pp. 17-45).  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Howitt, D. (2011). Introduction to research methods in psychology. Retrieved from

Haslam, S. (2003). Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology (SAGE Foundations of Psychology series) [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from

Book with no author

Webster’s basic English dictionary. (2000). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Edition of a book other than the first

Buglear, J. (2010). Stats mean business (2nd ed.)BurlingtonMA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

A translation

Castro, F. (2008). My life (A. Hurley, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 2006).

Entry in a an encyclopedia or dictionary

(i) Encyclopedia

Barber, C. (2009). Gender identity. In: E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.), Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia (Vols. 1-2, pp. 428-430). Detroit, MI: Gale-Cengage.

(ii) Dictionary

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Illustrated book/picture book

Ogaz, N., & Shubeck, P. (Illustrator). (2008). Buster and the Amazing Daisy: Adventures with Asperger Syndrome. London: Jessica Kingsley.

Book review

Hall, A. (2012). [Review of the book Child psychology and psychiatry: Frameworks for practice, by D. Skuse, H. Bruce, L. Dowdney & D. Mrazek].Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 17(2), 126. 

  1. Journals, Magazines and Periodicals

Journal article with one author

Middleton, J. (2011). The test of time: Neuropsychological approaches to children:Towards a developmental neuropsychology. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 16(2), 247-51.                      https://doi:10.1177/1359104511404364

Journal article with two authors

Garofalo, A., & Dupuis, P. (2013). The impact of coercive false-confession evidence on mock juror perception. Open Access Journal of Forensic Psychology, 5, 29-39. Retrieved from OAJFP / Volume_5__2013.html

Journal articles with three to five authors

Roberts, B. W., Lejuez, C., Krueger, R. F., Richards, J. M., & Hill, P. L. (2009). What is conscientiousness and how can it be assessed? Developmental Psychology, 50(5),1315-1330. https://doi:10.1037/a0031109

Journal article with six or more authors

Dietz, P. M., Williams, S. B., Callaghan, W. M., Bachman, D. J., Whitlock, E. P., & Hornbrook,M. C. (2007). Clinically identified maternal depression before, during, and after pregnancies ending in live births. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(10), 1515-1520. https://doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.06111893

Journal article (print)

Roberts, B. W., Lejuez, C., Krueger, R. F., Richards, J. M., & Hill, P. L. (2009). What is conscientiousness and how can it be assessed? Developmental psychology, 50(5),1315-1330.

Magazine article

Kuttner, R. (2003, September 8). The great American pension-fund robbery. Business Week, 24-26.  Retrieved from

Newspaper article

Morris, S. (2007, March 9). Why children become so attached to toys and comfort blankets. The Guardian, p.14.

Advance online publications

Kappes, A. & Oettinger, G. (2014). The emergence of goal pursuit: Mental contrasting connects future and reality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Advanced online publication. https://doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2014.03.014 

  1. Websites news media and Audio Visual

Basic web page

Beard, M. (2006). The fall of the Roman Republic. Retrieved from

Web page from a University site

Johnson, K. A., & Becker, J. A. (n.d.). The whole brain atlas. Retrieved from Harvard

University Medical School website:

Web page with no date

Royal Institute of British Architects. (n.d.). Shaping the future: Careers in architecture.

Retrieved from

Blog post

Hagon, P. (2009, September 27). Immediate sharing [Web log post]. Retrieved from blog/2009/09/27/immediate-sharing/

Facebook post

APA Style. (2011, March 10). How do you spell success in APA Style? Easy! Consult Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary or APA’s Dictionary of Psychology. Read more over at the APA Style Blog [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from


Gates, B. [BillGates]. (2013, February 26). #Polio is 99% eradicated. Join me & @FCBarcelona as we work to finish the job and #EndPolio. VIDEO: [Tweet]. Retrieved from

Official publication online

Department of Health. (2014). Special educational needs (SEN) code of practice and regulations. Retrieved from


Psychometric assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2007, from the Psychology Wiki:

Video sharing websites (YouTube)

American Psychological Association. (2013, July 23). The sexualisation of girls [Video file]. Retrieved from

Film, television, radio

  1. Film

Gigliotti, D., Gordon, J., & Russell, D. O. (Producers), & Russell, D. O. (Director). (2012). Silver linings playbook [Motion picture].     United States: The Weinstein Company-Mirage Enterprises.

  1. Television: single programme

Lynch, J. (Producer) & Walk. N. (Director). (2010, June 10). Who are we? [Television broadcast]. London: BBC.

iii. Television: single episode of a television series

Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House.  New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.

iv. Radio broadcast

Hall, A. (Producer). (2014, May 1). Sane in insane places [Radio broadcast]. London: BBC Radio 4.

Podcasts, vidcasts, vodcasts

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from 

  1. Other Sources 


  1. Advertisement: print (magazine)

The Wine Company. (2013, June 28). Discover our bestselling Marlborough Sauvignon [Advertisement]. Private Eye, 38.

  1. Advertisement: Broadcast

Audi. (2013, December 2). The new Audi Q5 [Television advertisment]. London: Channel 4.

Cochrane Review

Singh, J., Kour, K., & Jayaram Mahesh, B. (2012). Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012 (1), 1–101. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007967.pub2 

Conference papers, symposia and poster sessions 

  1. Conference paper in published proceedings (journal format)

Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, P., Kaas, J. H., & Lent, R. (2008). The basic no uniformity of the cerebral cortex.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 105, 12593-12598.doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805417105

  1. Conference paper published in book form

Taylor, J. L. & Lindsay, W. R. (2006). Developments in the treatment and management of offenders with intellectual disabilities. In: L. Falshaw & L.Rayment (Eds.), Division of Forensic Psychology Conference 2006: Invited Symposiums (pp. 23-31). Leicester: British Psychological Society. 

iii. Poster sessions

Adams-Labonte, S. K. (2012, August). Daytime impairment due to college students’ technology use during sleep: Similarities to sleep apnea. Poster session presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Orlando, FL. 

Images, artwork

  1. Image from an online source

Di Carpi, G. (1540). The holy family [Image]. Retrieved from art/collections/objects/o707.html 

  1. Artwork

Hopper, E. (1925). House by the railroad [Painting]. New York, NY: Museum of Modern Art.


Hopper, E. (1925). House by the railroad [Painting]. Retrieved from object_id=78330

Leaflets, pamphlets

National Health Service (2004). More choice and control over your healthcare: Making IT better [Brochure]. London: NHS  National Programme for Information Technology.

Multiple works by the same author

Bednarik, R. G. (2001). Rock art science: The scientific study of palaeoart. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols Publishers.

Bednarik, R. G. (2003a). Concerns in rock art science. Aura Newsletter, 20(1), 1-4.

Bednarik, R. G. (2003b). A figurine from the African Acheulian. Current Anthropology,44(3), 405-413.

Bednarik, R. G. (2003c). Seafaring in the Pleistocene. Cambridge ArchaeologicalJournal, 13(1), 41-66.


  1. CD Recording

Hetfield, J. (1986). Master of puppets [Recorded by Metallica]. [CD]. Chatsworth, CA: Asylum Records.

  1. Music track

Winehouse, A. (2006). Rehab. On Back to black [CD]. New York, NY: Universal Records.

Tests and measurement instruments

Franzoi, S. L. & Shields, S.A. (1984). The Body-Esteem Scale [Measurement instrument] Retrieved from scale.shtml


i. Published theses/dissertations

A published dissertation/thesis is a book and should be cited accordingly. 

  1. Unpublished dissertation/thesis

Aggrey, K. K. (2012). The collaboration between the NHS Trusts (Lincolnshire Foundation Partnership Trusts) and the voluntary sector on performance of mental health care delivery in Lincolnshire. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).    University of Lincoln, Lincoln.

Bhutan Journal of Business and Management (BJBM) Volume 1 Issue 1, October 2011
  • Employees Stress Level: A Study on Bank Professionals in Bhutan, By: Md. Hassan Jafri, Royal University of Bhutan (Gedu): Bhutan
    Abstract: This study intends to understand organisational role stress experienced by employees of banks in Bhutan. In this study, Organisational Role Stress (ORS) scale developed by areek (1993) is used, which studies ORS from ten dimensions. Data are collected from 56 full-time employees working in two major banks (Bank of Bhutan and Bhutan National Bank) in Bhutan. Results reveal that employees have moderate level of work stress. Of which, female employees are more stressful than their male counterpart, young employees are under more stress than old employees and employees with high educational qualification are more stressful. The study may help organisations to deal with and manage effectively employee’s occupational stress.

    Key Words: Organizational Role Stress, Occupational Stress, Work Stress, Bank Professionals in Bhutan

  • Demonstration Effect among the students of GCBS, By: Tshering Yangzom, Rinchen Chopel, Dawa Tshering, Ugyen Wangchuk, Kesang Tshokey, Tashi Chozom, and Chencho Wangmo
    Abstract: This paper is motivated by the work of James S. Duesenberry in which he tries to figure out human behaviour of excessive consumption without looking at his income. The paper however, highlights the importance and effectiveness of student’s consumption pattern in a college scenario by taking Gaeddu college as a particular area of study but the results of the research can be related to all college students. The research alsoidentifies the factors that may determine student’s behaviour towards the consumption of products other than their basic necessities. It also aims at possibly solving the problems of student’s uncontrollable spending habits and finding out ways in which students can manage money and find more effective and economical ways of spending. the research was conducted with regard to Duesenberry’s demonstration effect which is based on the theory that people’s buying behaviour is influenced by others and not simply people around them but those that they look up to. The possible causes of student’s uncontrollable spending habits have been identified and analysis has been done by drawing nine parameters that are likely to have an impact on the student’s buying behaviour and collecting responses through questionnaires.

    Key Words: Income, demonstration effect, spending habits, student etc.

  • Problems and prospects of Bhutanese Film Industry, By: Phub Dorji, Phuntsho Wangmo, Sangay Tenzin, Sonam Wangchuk, Thinley Penjor, Ugyen Chophel.
    Abstract: The upcoming Bhutanese Film Industry seems to have potential to act as a medium to exhibit the Bhutanese culture around the world if it captures a part of share in the international market. However, there are many factors which would hurdle its growth. This research identifies four factors namely, quality of the films, piracy issues, theatre constraints and lesser audience, which seem to hurdle the growth of Bhutanese film production at current phase. In this research, the researchers studied about, to what extent these factors affect the film productions, based on the opinion of viewers, producers and governing bodies. The viewers in this research comprises of the viewers within the city of Thimphu only. This is with the assumption that it represents the typical character of the Bhutanese film viewers. Considering these views, the research has found out that the quality, piracy and audience do exist in the Bhutanese Film Industry and it affects on an average but the problem of theatre shortages is affecting the growth of film industry with relatively greater magnitude.

    Keywords: Bhutanese Film industry, piracy, theatre constraints, etc.

  • Globalisation and Jobless Growth, By: Raj Kumar Sen, Rabindra Bharati University, Kolkata (India)
    Abstract: Globalisation in its current phase was expected to generate more employment not only directly but also indirectly through expansion of trade, income, FDI, etc. But for many developing economies of the world, this expectation could not be realised during the last two decades of its operation and in particular, it has resulted in to a jobless growth which often led to a voiceless and ruthless growth ultimately resulting into a futureless growth. The question of human rights protection in the field of employment under globalisation for women in EPZs in particular, is also important. This includes feminization of poverty and subsequent denial of human rights. This paper introduces these problems and attempts to depict them at different levels and emphasises on the experiences of India which is the habitat of one-sixth of humanity. The paper organises as follows: Introduction; Globalisation and Jobless Growth- A Global Scenario; Globalisation and Jobless Growth- The Indian Case Study; and Conclusion and Policy Prescriptions to meet the Challenges.

    Keywords: Jobless Growth, Truncated Globalization, and Feminization of Poverty

  • Integration of SAARC Nations: Growth, Trends and Challenges, By: Ramanjeet Singh, Institute of Management and Technology, Chandigarh India, and Ramita Verma, Surya World Rajpura Punjab, India
    Abstract: South Asia is emerging as the most promising and energetic region in the global economy. Expansion of domestic economies, rising opportunities for incomes and investments, growing of financial markets, greater pursuit of peace and stability are major driving factors of the current pace of growth in South Asia. Economic growth of the region has picked up at the faster rate in the last two years. Seven out of eight countries in the South Asia region have registered economic growth rates over 6 percent a year, making it one of the dynamic regions in the world. According to Global Economic Prospects of the World Bank, real GDP growth in South Asia which was at 5.7 percent in 2009 is poised to take leap to 6.9 percent in 2010 and to 7.4 percent in 2011. As compared to other regions, the prospect for South Asia seems to appear much brighter in the near future. Financial markets encompass institutions, financial products, market mechanism and services, which can be convenient tools to build common economic market. Financial market in the SAARC region will be a powerful mechanism to foster economic development and enhance quality of life of the people in our respective countries. This paper tries to highlight the latest trends and developments of SAARC nations, especially the role of India in the bloc.

    Keywords: Integration, Export Trade, Tariffs, SAFTA

  • Importance of business linkage in the marketing of Handicraft product: A Case Study of Handicraft Industry in Manipur, By: Elangbam Haridev Singh & Elangbam Bijoy Kumar Singh
    Abstract: Handicraft industry is a major industry, and source of employment for rural as well as urban Manipur and India. But this industry has a big issue of sustainability in the present micro-and macro economics environment. To sustain in the present competitive environment, business linkage has been adopted as a strategy to make the industry competitive in terms of productivity and help better marketing. One of the main problems of handicraft industry is lack of marketing capability on the part of craftsman. This paper will study the importance of business linkage for sustainable growth of handicraft Industry and examine the type of business linkage which is prevailing in Manipur. The impact of business linkage type like commercial subcontracting, joint venture, buyback, arms length market transaction, licensing etc on the profit and sales of handicraft industry in Manipur are also examined. Logit model is used to examine the impact of these variables on the growth of handicrafts industry in Manipur.

    Keywords: Rural Industrialization, rural development, Business linkage, Handcraft Industry

  • Value Education and GNH- A general Perspective By: Rajeeta Sapam
    Abstract:This article is an attempt to draw the similarities of the concept of GNH educational policy introduced in Bhutan with the general view of Value Education in other countries. It also deals with some general observations of some values still practiced by the general people. Lastly a perspective of the possible consequences of the GNH educational programme is given.

  • Review and Reflections on the Moveable and Immoveable Property Act of Bhutan 1999, By: Kim Van der Borght
    Abstract: The Moveable and Immoveable Property Act of the Kingdom of Bhutan of 1999 is an act dealing with secured loans using moveable or immoveable property as security for the loan. This article reviews the main legal provisions of the Act and offers some suggestions on how to deal with issues of interpretation as well as with some provisions that could benefit from further analysis. 

    Keywords: Moveable and Immovable Property; Bhutan; Loan; Security

  • For full paper, contact or
Bhutan Journal of Business and Management (BJBM) Volume 2 Issue 1, May 2019
  • Gross Organisational Happiness (GOH): An Extension of theGross National Happiness (GNH) Concept, By: Sonam Tobgye
    Abstract: This paper introduces the concept of Gross Organisational Happiness (GOH), an analytical tool that businesses, organisations, and communities could implement as a way to improve their working environment and productivity. The analogy of a structure of a house is used to describe the link between GNH, GOH and Gross Organisational Happiness Data System (GOHDS). Currently, the GOH concept is largely conceptual because its empirical evidence is limited to the findings of a case study. However, the potential exists for GOH to be widely applied in businesses to enhance the conventional profit-based notion of success. One obstacle of GNH to date has been its apparent lack of practicability, and so the new GOH expands upon GNH. This article first examines the       meaning of ‘happiness’, its relevance to the concept of Gross National Happiness (GNH) and how it has led to the new concept, Gross Organisational Happiness (GOH).

    Keywords: Paradigm shifter, Gross National Happiness, Gross Organisational Happiness, data system, material and mental well-being.

  • Entrepreneurial Intent amongst Business Students: A Perspective in Bhutan, By: Tandin Chhophel, Tenzin Rabgay & Dawala
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship in Bhutan is an emerging phenomenon both in terms of research and practice. Entrepreneurship is viewed as an alternative strategy to mitigate the rising youth unemployment problems. Against this backdrop, this research examines the entrepreneurial intent of the undergraduate business students in Bhutan. Perceived support, perceived barrier, attitude towards entrepreneurship and educational programme constitute determinants to examine the variation in the students’ entrepreneurial intent. The participants of the research include the second and the final year undergraduate business students of the Royal University of Bhutan from both the business programmes of Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) and Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com) (n=300). A proportionate convenience sampling was applied where 30% students from every class were chosen to participate in the research. Self-administered survey questionnaires were used to elicit information. The multiple linear regression analysis has been used to analyse the data which shows that the four predictors explain 42.9% of the variation in the entrepreneurial intent of the students. The attitude towards entrepreneurship is the significant predictor. This research is amongst the initial studies conducted on entrepreneurial intent in the Bhutanese context and brings a newer perspective in the understanding of entrepreneurial intent among the present youth.

    Keywords: Attitude towards entrepreneurship, business students, entrepreneurial intent, entrepreneurship education, perceived barrier, perceived support

  • Self Help Groups - Imperative for Financial Inclusion in India, By: Purna Prasad Sharma
    Abstract: India, in the last couple of decades, has witnessed competent growth in the financial service sector.  However,  several  questions  have  often  been  raised  for  majority  of  impoverished population that is excluded from formal financial system. The exclusion is very high in which one of the surveys shows that 59 percent of the rural household do not have deposit account and 79 percent of the rural households are outside the purview of credit from formal sources. The degree of such vast financial exclusion raise questions towards the Financial Inclusion Policies (FIPs) of the government and demands new mechanism and interventions to address the same. The Self – Help Groups (SHGs) in the recent past have been found as an effective tool to streamline poor with formal financial system. The present study, therefore, is a micro attempt where the current scenario of Financial Inclusion (FI) and the role of SHGs on the promotion of FI in India have been studied. The secondary data from NABARD, RBI, government departments, journals and websites form the sources of the study. The percentages and Linear Growth Rate (LGR) of different financial variables have been calculated to draw proper inferences. The study at the end infers that SHGs play pivotal role in bridging the hiatus between poor and financial institutions. The SHG Bank Linkage (SBLP) programme has been effective for streamlining poor with formal financial system. Over the years, the number of savings and credit linked SHGs have been increased. With the increased number of SHGs, the volume of loan outstanding and savings bank balance have also been increased. Besides, the roadmap prepared by the RBI for providing banking outlets in unbanked villages and preparation and implementation of board approved FIPs have been found significant for FI.

    Keywords: Financial Inclusion, Self Help Groups, Microfinance, Poverty

  • Servant Leadership: A Componential Analysis, By: Jose Mathews and Tshering Lhamo
    Abstract: Servant leadership, an exceptional form of leading and interacting with the followers in the process of endogenous and exogenous goal achievement, generally involves ‘I serve’ form rather than the commonly practiced ‘I lead’ form. Conceived in the realm of spiritual and ethical form of influencing, the  theory and practice of  servant leadership is  still in  its  evolving stage. The converging  and  diverging  interpretations,  however,  do  not  dilute  the  essence  of  servant leadership.  The  differing  analyses  further  illuminate  the  nature  of  servant  leadership.  In dissecting the components of this unique form influencing, the key psychological processes are subjected to study in the context of the general parameters of servant leadership.

    Keywords: Leadership, Servant leadership, Emotional processes, Cognitive processes, Motivational processes, Personality processes, Social relational processes

  • Class Absenteeism and Exam Performance of Gedu College of Business Studies (GCBS) Students By: Rinchen Dorji and Namgay Dorji
    Abstract: Literature on the importance of class attendance affirms the positive effect of attendance on student achievement. Royal University of Bhutan has therefore, developed attendance policies that mandate all students to attend at least 90% of the classes in each module. Consequence of the law, every semester many students are directly declared fail in the respective module(s) of attendance shortage which do not actually represent the real learning outcome of the students. Therefore, to evaluate the actual impact of attendance in terms of learning outcomes a correlation analysis is performed using Feb.-June 2015 semester data. Results indicate a statistically significant but weak  positive  correlation  between  lecture  attendance  and  exam  performance  (, suggesting  the requirement to improve class deliveries and course designs. Students are also recommended to develop their personality towards class attendance and learning.

    Key words: Attendance, Exam Performance and Correlation

  • Indian and Bhutanese Governments Support Platform towards E-Marketing in SBEs: An Exploratory Study By: Dr. Shad Ahmad Khan and Dr. Asif Ali Syed
    Abstract: E-Marketing is often considered to be the future of marketing and the other related fields. The last two  decades have  been  crucial  for  the  E-marketing as  the  world  is  witnessing the  biggest electronic revolution in the era of Information Technology and Computers. Today every organisation strives to mark its presence on the E-world along with the real world through different E-Sources available to it. The ever growing E-commerce is the biggest evidence of the presence of E-marketing in the modern world. This development in the field of marketing is possible  because  of  the  E-Infrastructure  available  in  an  economy  which  is  the  result  of government policies and vision pertaining to the future of the respective nations. Many authors, researchers are of the opinion to develop the E-marketing practices so as to develop the economy as the E-marketing tends to target more number of customers, suppliers and other stakeholders. The present study is an attempt to analyse support platforms available for SBEs in the two neighbouring countries India and Bhutan. The study analyses the various government agencies available in these two nations and their contribution in providing the support platform towards E- marketing in SBEs. The study also compares the practices of the two nations based on the literature and tries to draw a meaningful conclusion and recommendations thereon.

    Keywords:   E-Marketing, Small Business Enterprises (SBEs), Information Technology, Support platform, India, Bhutan, government agencies

  • Managing University Networks and Internationalisation By: Cathryn B. Bennett
    Abstract: Using a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed scholarly research and policy documents, this paper analyses higher education Internationalisation. Cases from India, China, and the Himalayan University Consortium (HUC) are presented. Challenges of standardized quality assurance and ethical intentions of foreign institutions in developing cross-border education agreements emerge from the cases. Furthermore, the cases demonstrate the myriad potential benefits to be gained from international connectivity of universities ranging from improved teaching, learning, and research quality as well as the development and co-creation of best practices. Implications for the Royal University of Bhutan and other similar tertiary education institutions include the necessity of observing and adapting local approaches based in the experiences of other countries’ universities already well-versed and practiced in the beneficial and adverse repercussions of internationalizing and networking institutions of higher learning.

    Keywords:   Higher education, Internationalisation, networks, cross-border education, quality assurance

  • For full paper, contact or
Bhutan Journal of Business and Management (BJBM) Volume 3 Issue 1, June 2020
  • An Assessment of Organizational Commitment among the Faculty Members of RUB Colleges - Tshewang Norbu

    Abstract: Organizational commitment is a psychological construction of responsibility that an employee has towards the mission and direction of an organization. This study attempted to assess the level of organizationalcommitment among the faculty members of the constituent colleges of the Royal University of Bhutan. The problem of many organizations today is not just to have more skillful and intellectual employees in each andevery department, but also to find the right talented employees with positive attitude and commitment to their work. Employees’ involvement with the organization could be minimal if they do not feel the sense ofengagement with the organization they work for. This observation has brought about the purpose and need for this study, which is to examine the level of organizational commitment. With a quantitative research design,this study adopted a cross-sectional online survey method of data collection with a sample size of 197 from all the constituent colleges of RUB. Descriptive statistics, means, independent samples t-test and correlationanalysis were performed to generate the relevant results. The result reveals that overall commitment level of the faculty members are relatively poor and male faculty members tend to report slightly higher level of commitment compared to female faculty members.

    Keywords: Organizational Commitments, Affective, Continuance and Normative,

  • Organizational Architecture of Human Resources - Jose Mathews, Karma Yezer and K M Antony
    Abstract: In the human resource-based view of an organisation, resource heterogeneity of the firm provides sustainable competitive advantage. The two core variables that define the resource heterogeneity are the content capital (human capital) and the contextual capital (organisational and managerial processes) of the firm. Using the architectural designs that specify the gradient of organisational performance, this paper suggests theorganisational architecture of human resources, delineating the mechanisms of content capital and contextual capital formations. The general model of architecture explains the key variables that architect the content capital and contextual capital. The interactive architectural designs specify the patterns of interaction between the contextual capital processes like leadership, decision-making, communication, motivational strategies,control systems, innovation processes and organisational culture that interact with the content capital of weak and strong patterns producing varying organizational performance outcomes.

  • Implementation of RGoB Procurement Rules and Regulations (2009): The Challenges of RUB Colleges - Pema Wangchuk, Namgay Dorji, Sonam Wangda and Kencho Wangmo
    Abstract: This study presents the challenges of Tender Committees of the colleges of the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB) in implementing the Royal Government of Bhutan’s Public Procurement Rules and Regulations (RGoB PRR 2009), hereafter referred to as the manual. The challenges of the manual have been extensively deliberated in the parliament, RoyalAudit Authority, Anti- Corruption Commission and media in the country. However, there is lack of consideration to address the matters due to rapidly growing challenges among the procuring agencies in the country with no exception to colleges of RUB. The key variables examined in the study are the level of knowledge, the procedure compliance andenforcement of the manual. A total of 36 committee members participated in the study through survey questionnaires and personal interviews. The descriptive statistics was used to analyse and present the findings. The findings showed the need for all colleges to address the challenges and ensure uniformity in the implementation of the manual in the process ofprocurement. The capacity building programme for the tender committees is one of the keyrecommendations.

  • Higher Education: A Case Study of Leadership at the Royal University of Bhutan - Kinley Rinchen
    Abstract: Effective leadership is key to any organisational success including higher education institutions. This paper assesses the different aspects of leadership in the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB) using Bryman’s 13 Key Behaviors of Effective Leaders. Secondary data from Organisational Behaviour Survey 2015 was used. It covered 548 respondents from eightcolleges and Office of the Vice Chancellor. A simple aggregate analysis was used to draw inferences. Findings show that employees have generally rated high in the way they communicate broader direction – vision and mission, treatment of staff in a fair manner, being approachable, and building harmonious relationship with colleagues. However, ratingsare lower on engagement of staff in planning processes, providing constructive feedback, delegating decision-making authority and ensuring coordinated approach to planning and implementation. Based on the assessment, the paper offers suggestions for a system of rigorous leadership training that will continue to nurture the strength of existing leadership.

  • A Study of Identified Factors for Motivation of Entrepreneurship in the Business Colleges - Tenzin Phuntsho
    Abstract: Students’ motivation for entrepreneurship has various factors. This research intends to rank the factors among the attitudes towards entrepreneurship: subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and entrepreneurship education that motivate students to become anentrepreneur. Data for this quantitative study were collected from the students of Gedu College of Business Studies (GCBS) and Royal Thimphu College (RTC). Descriptive statistical tools such as frequency, percentage, mean score, and standard deviation were used to analyze the data. The findings reveal that attitudes towards entrepreneurship are contributing moretowards motivating students to become an entrepreneur followed by entrepreneurship education and subjective norms. Perceived behavior control is found to be the least motivating factor to become an entrepreneur.
  • 5.2 Reports and Newsletters
    The college also supports the other general publications such as, annual or semi-annual reports, news reports on the major college events and literacy related papers by the staff and students. The newsletter publication includes GCBS Chronicles, Gedu Voice, and Anthology of Poems, among others. 

    5.3 Project Reports and Policy Brief
    Green Kitchen Case & Policy Brief