The research office at GCBS is the research, consulting, training and entrepreneurship development arm of the college. The office drives policy relevant business research, provides GNH value-based training in the field of business and management, engages in consulting projects, and facilitates creation of an enabling environment for student entrepreneurship. The College and the Royal University of Bhutan has endorsed the establishment of ‘Centre for Business Research and Entrepreneurship Development (CBRED)’.

The Center for Business Research and Entrepreneurship Development [CBRED] publishes Bhutan Journal of Business and Management[BJBM]. BJBM is a double-blind peer reviewed journal published annually having secured professional ISSN-L 2079-7680 (PRINT) in 2010 and ISSN 2663-1784 (ONLINE) in 2019. The journal primarily encourages empirical and conceptual research articles, case studies, research notes, and book reviews from diverse fields. It provides a platform for keen researchers, practitioners, professionals and academicians who are involved in the field of business and management in particular and in other areas in general. The inferences drawn from the various studies of this journal are expected to benefit various stakeholders that include students, researchers, academicians, and policy makers both at national and the international levels.

For enquiry, please write to the editor at editorbjbm.gcbs@rub.edu.bt

Bhutan Journal of Business and Management (BJBM) Volume 1 Issue 1
  • Employees Stress Level: A Study on Bank Professionals in Bhutan, By: Md. Hassan Jafri, Royal University of Bhutan (Gedu): Bhutan
    Abstract: This study intends to understand organisational role stress experienced by employees of banks in Bhutan. In this study, Organisational Role Stress (ORS) scale developed by areek (1993) is used, which studies ORS from ten dimensions. Data are collected from 56 full-time employees working in two major banks (Bank of Bhutan and Bhutan National Bank) in Bhutan. Results reveal that employees have moderate level of work stress. Of which, female employees are more stressful than their male counterpart, young employees are under more stress than old employees and employees with high educational qualification are more stressful. The study may help organisations to deal with and manage effectively employee’s occupational stress.

    Key Words: Organizational Role Stress, Occupational Stress, Work Stress, Bank Professionals in Bhutan

  • Demonstration Effect among the students of GCBS, By: Tshering Yangzom, Rinchen Chopel, Dawa Tshering, Ugyen Wangchuk, Kesang Tshokey, Tashi Chozom, and Chencho Wangmo
    Abstract: This paper is motivated by the work of James S. Duesenberry in which he tries to figure out human behaviour of excessive consumption without looking at his income. The paper however, highlights the importance and effectiveness of student’s consumption pattern in a college scenario by taking Gaeddu college as a particular area of study but the results of the research can be related to all college students. The research alsoidentifies the factors that may determine student’s behaviour towards the consumption of products other than their basic necessities. It also aims at possibly solving the problems of student’s uncontrollable spending habits and finding out ways in which students can manage money and find more effective and economical ways of spending. the research was conducted with regard to Duesenberry’s demonstration effect which is based on the theory that people’s buying behaviour is influenced by others and not simply people around them but those that they look up to. The possible causes of student’s uncontrollable spending habits have been identified and analysis has been done by drawing nine parameters that are likely to have an impact on the student’s buying behaviour and collecting responses through questionnaires.

    Key Words: Income, demonstration effect, spending habits, student etc.

  • Problems and prospects of Bhutanese Film Industry, By: Phub Dorji, Phuntsho Wangmo, Sangay Tenzin, Sonam Wangchuk, Thinley Penjor, Ugyen Chophel.
    Abstract: The upcoming Bhutanese Film Industry seems to have potential to act as a medium to exhibit the Bhutanese culture around the world if it captures a part of share in the international market. However, there are many factors which would hurdle its growth. This research identifies four factors namely, quality of the films, piracy issues, theatre constraints and lesser audience, which seem to hurdle the growth of Bhutanese film production at current phase. In this research, the researchers studied about, to what extent these factors affect the film productions, based on the opinion of viewers, producers and governing bodies. The viewers in this research comprises of the viewers within the city of Thimphu only. This is with the assumption that it represents the typical character of the Bhutanese film viewers. Considering these views, the research has found out that the quality, piracy and audience do exist in the Bhutanese Film Industry and it affects on an average but the problem of theatre shortages is affecting the growth of film industry with relatively greater magnitude.

    Keywords: Bhutanese Film industry, piracy, theatre constraints, etc.

  • Globalisation and Jobless Growth, By: Raj Kumar Sen, Rabindra Bharati University, Kolkata (India)
    Abstract: Globalisation in its current phase was expected to generate more employment not only directly but also indirectly through expansion of trade, income, FDI, etc. But for many developing economies of the world, this expectation could not be realised during the last two decades of its operation and in particular, it has resulted in to a jobless growth which often led to a voiceless and ruthless growth ultimately resulting into a futureless growth. The question of human rights protection in the field of employment under globalisation for women in EPZs in particular, is also important. This includes feminization of poverty and subsequent denial of human rights. This paper introduces these problems and attempts to depict them at different levels and emphasises on the experiences of India which is the habitat of one-sixth of humanity. The paper organises as follows: Introduction; Globalisation and Jobless Growth- A Global Scenario; Globalisation and Jobless Growth- The Indian Case Study; and Conclusion and Policy Prescriptions to meet the Challenges.

    Keywords: Jobless Growth, Truncated Globalization, and Feminization of Poverty

  • Integration of SAARC Nations: Growth, Trends and Challenges, By: Ramanjeet Singh, Institute of Management and Technology, Chandigarh India, and Ramita Verma, Surya World Rajpura Punjab, India
    Abstract: South Asia is emerging as the most promising and energetic region in the global economy. Expansion of domestic economies, rising opportunities for incomes and investments, growing of financial markets, greater pursuit of peace and stability are major driving factors of the current pace of growth in South Asia. Economic growth of the region has picked up at the faster rate in the last two years. Seven out of eight countries in the South Asia region have registered economic growth rates over 6 percent a year, making it one of the dynamic regions in the world. According to Global Economic Prospects of the World Bank, real GDP growth in South Asia which was at 5.7 percent in 2009 is poised to take leap to 6.9 percent in 2010 and to 7.4 percent in 2011. As compared to other regions, the prospect for South Asia seems to appear much brighter in the near future. Financial markets encompass institutions, financial products, market mechanism and services, which can be convenient tools to build common economic market. Financial market in the SAARC region will be a powerful mechanism to foster economic development and enhance quality of life of the people in our respective countries. This paper tries to highlight the latest trends and developments of SAARC nations, especially the role of India in the bloc.

    Keywords: Integration, Export Trade, Tariffs, SAFTA

  • Importance of business linkage in the marketing of Handicraft product: A Case Study of Handicraft Industry in Manipur, By: Elangbam Haridev Singh & Elangbam Bijoy Kumar Singh
    Abstract: Handicraft industry is a major industry, and source of employment for rural as well as urban Manipur and India. But this industry has a big issue of sustainability in the present micro-and macro economics environment. To sustain in the present competitive environment, business linkage has been adopted as a strategy to make the industry competitive in terms of productivity and help better marketing. One of the main problems of handicraft industry is lack of marketing capability on the part of craftsman. This paper will study the importance of business linkage for sustainable growth of handicraft Industry and examine the type of business linkage which is prevailing in Manipur. The impact of business linkage type like commercial subcontracting, joint venture, buyback, arms length market transaction, licensing etc on the profit and sales of handicraft industry in Manipur are also examined. Logit model is used to examine the impact of these variables on the growth of handicrafts industry in Manipur.

    Keywords: Rural Industrialization, rural development, Business linkage, Handcraft Industry

  • Value Education and GNH- A general Perspective By: Rajeeta Sapam
    Abstract:This article is an attempt to draw the similarities of the concept of GNH educational policy introduced in Bhutan with the general view of Value Education in other countries. It also deals with some general observations of some values still practiced by the general people. Lastly a perspective of the possible consequences of the GNH educational programme is given.

  • Review and Reflections on the Moveable and Immoveable Property Act of Bhutan 1999, By: Kim Van der Borght
    Abstract: The Moveable and Immoveable Property Act of the Kingdom of Bhutan of 1999 is an act dealing with secured loans using moveable or immoveable property as security for the loan. This article reviews the main legal provisions of the Act and offers some suggestions on how to deal with issues of interpretation as well as with some provisions that could benefit from further analysis. 

    Keywords: Moveable and Immovable Property; Bhutan; Loan; Security

  • For full paper, contact editorbjbm.gcbs@rub.edu.bt or dril.gcbs@rub.edu.bt
Bhutan Journal of Business and Management (BJBM) Volume 2 Issue 1
  • Gross Organisational Happiness (GOH): An Extension of theGross National Happiness (GNH) Concept, By: Sonam Tobgye
    Abstract: This paper introduces the concept of Gross Organisational Happiness (GOH), an analytical tool that businesses, organisations, and communities could implement as a way to improve their working environment and productivity. The analogy of a structure of a house is used to describe the link between GNH, GOH and Gross Organisational Happiness Data System (GOHDS). Currently, the GOH concept is largely conceptual because its empirical evidence is limited to the findings of a case study. However, the potential exists for GOH to be widely applied in businesses to enhance the conventional profit-based notion of success. One obstacle of GNH to date has been its apparent lack of practicability, and so the new GOH expands upon GNH. This article first examines the       meaning of ‘happiness’, its relevance to the concept of Gross National Happiness (GNH) and how it has led to the new concept, Gross Organisational Happiness (GOH).

    Keywords: Paradigm shifter, Gross National Happiness, Gross Organisational Happiness, data system, material and mental well-being.

  • Entrepreneurial Intent amongst Business Students: A Perspective in Bhutan, By: Tandin Chhophel, Tenzin Rabgay & Dawala
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship in Bhutan is an emerging phenomenon both in terms of research and practice. Entrepreneurship is viewed as an alternative strategy to mitigate the rising youth unemployment problems. Against this backdrop, this research examines the entrepreneurial intent of the undergraduate business students in Bhutan. Perceived support, perceived barrier, attitude towards entrepreneurship and educational programme constitute determinants to examine the variation in the students’ entrepreneurial intent. The participants of the research include the second and the final year undergraduate business students of the Royal University of Bhutan from both the business programmes of Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) and Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com) (n=300). A proportionate convenience sampling was applied where 30% students from every class were chosen to participate in the research. Self-administered survey questionnaires were used to elicit information. The multiple linear regression analysis has been used to analyse the data which shows that the four predictors explain 42.9% of the variation in the entrepreneurial intent of the students. The attitude towards entrepreneurship is the significant predictor. This research is amongst the initial studies conducted on entrepreneurial intent in the Bhutanese context and brings a newer perspective in the understanding of entrepreneurial intent among the present youth.

    Keywords: Attitude towards entrepreneurship, business students, entrepreneurial intent, entrepreneurship education, perceived barrier, perceived support

  • Self Help Groups - Imperative for Financial Inclusion in India, By: Purna Prasad Sharma
    Abstract: India, in the last couple of decades, has witnessed competent growth in the financial service sector.  However,  several  questions  have  often  been  raised  for  majority  of  impoverished population that is excluded from formal financial system. The exclusion is very high in which one of the surveys shows that 59 percent of the rural household do not have deposit account and 79 percent of the rural households are outside the purview of credit from formal sources. The degree of such vast financial exclusion raise questions towards the Financial Inclusion Policies (FIPs) of the government and demands new mechanism and interventions to address the same. The Self – Help Groups (SHGs) in the recent past have been found as an effective tool to streamline poor with formal financial system. The present study, therefore, is a micro attempt where the current scenario of Financial Inclusion (FI) and the role of SHGs on the promotion of FI in India have been studied. The secondary data from NABARD, RBI, government departments, journals and websites form the sources of the study. The percentages and Linear Growth Rate (LGR) of different financial variables have been calculated to draw proper inferences. The study at the end infers that SHGs play pivotal role in bridging the hiatus between poor and financial institutions. The SHG Bank Linkage (SBLP) programme has been effective for streamlining poor with formal financial system. Over the years, the number of savings and credit linked SHGs have been increased. With the increased number of SHGs, the volume of loan outstanding and savings bank balance have also been increased. Besides, the roadmap prepared by the RBI for providing banking outlets in unbanked villages and preparation and implementation of board approved FIPs have been found significant for FI.

    Keywords: Financial Inclusion, Self Help Groups, Microfinance, Poverty

  • Servant Leadership: A Componential Analysis, By: Jose Mathews and Tshering Lhamo
    Abstract: Servant leadership, an exceptional form of leading and interacting with the followers in the process of endogenous and exogenous goal achievement, generally involves ‘I serve’ form rather than the commonly practiced ‘I lead’ form. Conceived in the realm of spiritual and ethical form of influencing, the  theory and practice of  servant leadership is  still in  its  evolving stage. The converging  and  diverging  interpretations,  however,  do  not  dilute  the  essence  of  servant leadership.  The  differing  analyses  further  illuminate  the  nature  of  servant  leadership.  In dissecting the components of this unique form influencing, the key psychological processes are subjected to study in the context of the general parameters of servant leadership.

    Keywords: Leadership, Servant leadership, Emotional processes, Cognitive processes, Motivational processes, Personality processes, Social relational processes

  • Class Absenteeism and Exam Performance of Gedu College of Business Studies (GCBS) Students By: Rinchen Dorji and Namgay Dorji
    Abstract: Literature on the importance of class attendance affirms the positive effect of attendance on student achievement. Royal University of Bhutan has therefore, developed attendance policies that mandate all students to attend at least 90% of the classes in each module. Consequence of the law, every semester many students are directly declared fail in the respective module(s) of attendance shortage which do not actually represent the real learning outcome of the students. Therefore, to evaluate the actual impact of attendance in terms of learning outcomes a correlation analysis is performed using Feb.-June 2015 semester data. Results indicate a statistically significant but weak  positive  correlation  between  lecture  attendance  and  exam  performance  (, suggesting  the requirement to improve class deliveries and course designs. Students are also recommended to develop their personality towards class attendance and learning.

    Key words: Attendance, Exam Performance and Correlation

  • Indian and Bhutanese Governments Support Platform towards E-Marketing in SBEs: An Exploratory Study By: Dr. Shad Ahmad Khan and Dr. Asif Ali Syed
    Abstract: E-Marketing is often considered to be the future of marketing and the other related fields. The last two  decades have  been  crucial  for  the  E-marketing as  the  world  is  witnessing the  biggest electronic revolution in the era of Information Technology and Computers. Today every organisation strives to mark its presence on the E-world along with the real world through different E-Sources available to it. The ever growing E-commerce is the biggest evidence of the presence of E-marketing in the modern world. This development in the field of marketing is possible  because  of  the  E-Infrastructure  available  in  an  economy  which  is  the  result  of government policies and vision pertaining to the future of the respective nations. Many authors, researchers are of the opinion to develop the E-marketing practices so as to develop the economy as the E-marketing tends to target more number of customers, suppliers and other stakeholders. The present study is an attempt to analyse support platforms available for SBEs in the two neighbouring countries India and Bhutan. The study analyses the various government agencies available in these two nations and their contribution in providing the support platform towards E- marketing in SBEs. The study also compares the practices of the two nations based on the literature and tries to draw a meaningful conclusion and recommendations thereon.

    Keywords:   E-Marketing, Small Business Enterprises (SBEs), Information Technology, Support platform, India, Bhutan, government agencies

  • Managing University Networks and Internationalisation By: Cathryn B. Bennett
    Abstract: Using a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed scholarly research and policy documents, this paper analyses higher education Internationalisation. Cases from India, China, and the Himalayan University Consortium (HUC) are presented. Challenges of standardized quality assurance and ethical intentions of foreign institutions in developing cross-border education agreements emerge from the cases. Furthermore, the cases demonstrate the myriad potential benefits to be gained from international connectivity of universities ranging from improved teaching, learning, and research quality as well as the development and co-creation of best practices. Implications for the Royal University of Bhutan and other similar tertiary education institutions include the necessity of observing and adapting local approaches based in the experiences of other countries’ universities already well-versed and practiced in the beneficial and adverse repercussions of internationalizing and networking institutions of higher learning.

    Keywords:   Higher education, Internationalisation, networks, cross-border education, quality assurance

  • For full paper, contact editorbjbm.gcbs@rub.edu.bt or dril.gcbs@rub.edu.bt
Bhutan Journal of Business and Management (BJBM) Referencing

APA Referencing Format (6th ed.) 

  1. Books

Book with a single author

Cottrell, S. (2013). The study skills handbook (5th ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Book with two authors

McQueen, R. A., & Knussen, C. (2006). An introduction to research methods and statistics in psychology. Harlow: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Book with three to five authors

Greig, A., Taylor, J., & MacKay, T. (2013). Doing research with children: A practical guide. London: Sage. 

Book with six or seven authors

Bexby, C., Nigel, E., Smith, K., Rodgers, G. A., Williams, H., & Robinson, J. (2005). Referencing and plagiarism: A complete guide. London: Sage.

Book with eight or more authors

Berman, A., Snyder, S. J., Levett-Jones, T., Dwyer, T., Hales, M., Harvey, N. … Stanley, D. (2012). Kozier and Erb’s fundamentals of nursing (2nd Aust. ed.). Frenchs Forest, Australia: Pearson Australia.

Edited book

Smith, J. A. (Ed.). (2008). Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods. London: Sage.

Chapter in an edited book

Van de Vijver, F., & Leung, K. (2011). Equivalence and bias: A review of concepts, models, and data analytic procedures.  In D. Matsumoto & F. Van de Vijver (Eds.), Cross-cultural research methods in psychology (pp. 17-45).  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

E-book

Howitt, D. (2011). Introduction to research methods in psychology. Retrieved from https://www.dawsonera.com.

Haslam, S. (2003). Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology (SAGE Foundations of Psychology series) [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com

Book with no author

Webster’s basic English dictionary. (2000). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Edition of a book other than the first

Buglear, J. (2010). Stats mean business (2nd ed.)BurlingtonMA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

A translation

Castro, F. (2008). My life (A. Hurley, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 2006).

Entry in a an encyclopedia or dictionary

(i) Encyclopedia

Barber, C. (2009). Gender identity. In: E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.), Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia (Vols. 1-2, pp. 428-430). Detroit, MI: Gale-Cengage.

(ii) Dictionary

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Illustrated book/picture book

Ogaz, N., & Shubeck, P. (Illustrator). (2008). Buster and the Amazing Daisy: Adventures with Asperger Syndrome. London: Jessica Kingsley.

Book review

Hall, A. (2012). [Review of the book Child psychology and psychiatry: Frameworks for practice, by D. Skuse, H. Bruce, L. Dowdney & D. Mrazek].Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 17(2), 126. 

  1. Journals, Magazines and Periodicals

Journal article with one author

Middleton, J. (2011). The test of time: Neuropsychological approaches to children:Towards a developmental neuropsychology. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 16(2), 247-51.                      https://doi:10.1177/1359104511404364

Journal article with two authors

Garofalo, A., & Dupuis, P. (2013). The impact of coercive false-confession evidence on mock juror perception. Open Access Journal of Forensic Psychology, 5, 29-39. Retrieved from www.forensicpsychologyunbound.ws/ OAJFP / Volume_5__2013.html

Journal articles with three to five authors

Roberts, B. W., Lejuez, C., Krueger, R. F., Richards, J. M., & Hill, P. L. (2009). What is conscientiousness and how can it be assessed? Developmental Psychology, 50(5),1315-1330. https://doi:10.1037/a0031109

Journal article with six or more authors

Dietz, P. M., Williams, S. B., Callaghan, W. M., Bachman, D. J., Whitlock, E. P., & Hornbrook,M. C. (2007). Clinically identified maternal depression before, during, and after pregnancies ending in live births. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(10), 1515-1520. https://doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.06111893

Journal article (print)

Roberts, B. W., Lejuez, C., Krueger, R. F., Richards, J. M., & Hill, P. L. (2009). What is conscientiousness and how can it be assessed? Developmental psychology, 50(5),1315-1330.

Magazine article

Kuttner, R. (2003, September 8). The great American pension-fund robbery. Business Week, 24-26.  Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com

Newspaper article

Morris, S. (2007, March 9). Why children become so attached to toys and comfort blankets. The Guardian, p.14.

Advance online publications

Kappes, A. & Oettinger, G. (2014). The emergence of goal pursuit: Mental contrasting connects future and reality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Advanced online publication. https://doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2014.03.014 

  1. Websites news media and Audio Visual

Basic web page

Beard, M. (2006). The fall of the Roman Republic. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/fallofromanrepublic_article_01.shtml

Web page from a University site

Johnson, K. A., & Becker, J. A. (n.d.). The whole brain atlas. Retrieved from Harvard

University Medical School website: http://www.med.harvard.edu/AANLIB/

Web page with no date

Royal Institute of British Architects. (n.d.). Shaping the future: Careers in architecture.

Retrieved from http://ww.careersinarchitecture.net/

Blog post

Hagon, P. (2009, September 27). Immediate sharing [Web log post]. Retrieved from

http://www.paulhagon.com/ blog/2009/09/27/immediate-sharing/

Facebook post

APA Style. (2011, March 10). How do you spell success in APA Style? Easy! Consult Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary or APA’s Dictionary of Psychology. Read more over at the APA Style Blog [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/APAStyle/posts/206877529328877

Twitter

Gates, B. [BillGates]. (2013, February 26). #Polio is 99% eradicated. Join me & @FCBarcelona as we work to finish the job and #EndPolio. VIDEO: http://b-gat.es/X75Lvy [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/BillGates

Official publication online

Department of Health. (2014). Special educational needs (SEN) code of practice and regulations. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/special-educational-needs-sen-code-of-practice-and-regulations

Wiki

Psychometric assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2007, from the Psychology Wiki: http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Psychometric_assessment

Video sharing websites (YouTube)

American Psychological Association. (2013, July 23). The sexualisation of girls [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2PddIma3LQ&list=TLO-m_vzLRS3HxUSa94J0xNmriHrXIQpj2

Film, television, radio

  1. Film

Gigliotti, D., Gordon, J., & Russell, D. O. (Producers), & Russell, D. O. (Director). (2012). Silver linings playbook [Motion picture].     United States: The Weinstein Company-Mirage Enterprises.

  1. Television: single programme

Lynch, J. (Producer) & Walk. N. (Director). (2010, June 10). Who are we? [Television broadcast]. London: BBC.

iii. Television: single episode of a television series

Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House.  New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.

iv. Radio broadcast

Hall, A. (Producer). (2014, May 1). Sane in insane places [Radio broadcast]. London: BBC Radio 4.

Podcasts, vidcasts, vodcasts

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/ 

  1. Other Sources 

Advertisements

  1. Advertisement: print (magazine)

The Wine Company. (2013, June 28). Discover our bestselling Marlborough Sauvignon [Advertisement]. Private Eye, 38.

  1. Advertisement: Broadcast

Audi. (2013, December 2). The new Audi Q5 [Television advertisment]. London: Channel 4.

Cochrane Review

Singh, J., Kour, K., & Jayaram Mahesh, B. (2012). Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012 (1), 1–101. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007967.pub2 

Conference papers, symposia and poster sessions 

  1. Conference paper in published proceedings (journal format)

Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, P., Kaas, J. H., & Lent, R. (2008). The basic no uniformity of the cerebral cortex.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 105, 12593-12598.doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805417105

  1. Conference paper published in book form

Taylor, J. L. & Lindsay, W. R. (2006). Developments in the treatment and management of offenders with intellectual disabilities. In: L. Falshaw & L.Rayment (Eds.), Division of Forensic Psychology Conference 2006: Invited Symposiums (pp. 23-31). Leicester: British Psychological Society. 

iii. Poster sessions

Adams-Labonte, S. K. (2012, August). Daytime impairment due to college students’ technology use during sleep: Similarities to sleep apnea. Poster session presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Orlando, FL. 

Images, artwork

  1. Image from an online source

Di Carpi, G. (1540). The holy family [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.getty.edu/ art/collections/objects/o707.html 

  1. Artwork

Hopper, E. (1925). House by the railroad [Painting]. New York, NY: Museum of Modern Art.

OR

Hopper, E. (1925). House by the railroad [Painting]. Retrieved from http://www.moma.org/collection/object.php? object_id=78330

Leaflets, pamphlets

National Health Service (2004). More choice and control over your healthcare: Making IT better [Brochure]. London: NHS  National Programme for Information Technology.

Multiple works by the same author

Bednarik, R. G. (2001). Rock art science: The scientific study of palaeoart. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols Publishers.

Bednarik, R. G. (2003a). Concerns in rock art science. Aura Newsletter, 20(1), 1-4.

Bednarik, R. G. (2003b). A figurine from the African Acheulian. Current Anthropology, 44(3), 405-413.

Bednarik, R. G. (2003c). Seafaring in the Pleistocene. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 13(1), 41-66.

Music

  1. CD Recording

Hetfield, J. (1986). Master of puppets [Recorded by Metallica]. [CD]. Chatsworth, CA: Asylum Records.

  1. Music track

Winehouse, A. (2006). Rehab. On Back to black [CD]. New York, NY: Universal Records.

Tests and measurement instruments

Franzoi, S. L. & Shields, S.A. (1984). The Body-Esteem Scale [Measurement instrument] Retrieved from http://www.marquette.edu/psyc/facstaff_franzoi_ scale.shtml

Theses/dissertations

i. Published theses/dissertations

A published dissertation/thesis is a book and should be cited accordingly. 

  1. Unpublished dissertation/thesis

Aggrey, K. K. (2012). The collaboration between the NHS Trusts (Lincolnshire Foundation Partnership Trusts) and the voluntary sector on performance of mental health care delivery in Lincolnshire. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).    University of Lincoln, Lincoln.